1. Nyberg G. N. and Buhrman R. A. Vanadium dioxide film deposition by evaporation of vanadium onto heated substrate in oxygen atmosphere under controlled process parameters, US Patent 4654231 A, issued 4/31/1987
  2. Buhrman, R. A., Ralph, D. C. Liu, L. & Pai, C. F, Spin Hall Effect Magnetic Apparatus, Method and Applications. WO2013025994-A2; WO2013025994-A3; KR2014044941-A; US2014169088-A1; CN103890855-A; KR1457511-B1; US9105832-B2; US2015348606-A1. Issued 8/11/2015
  3. Buhrman, R. A., Ralph, D. C. Liu, L. & Pai, C. F. Electrically Gated Three-Terminal Circuits and Devices Based on Spin Hall Effect. WO2014025838-A1; KR2015054804-A; US2015200003-A1; CN104704564-A, US9230626, issued 1/5/2016
  4. Buhrman, R. A., Lee, O. & Ralph, D. C. Quasi-Linear Spin Torque Nano-Oscillators. WO2014110603-A1; US2015372687-A1 US Patent 9,577,653B2, issued 2/21/2017
  5. Ralph, D. C. & Buhrman, R. A. Magnetic tunneling junction memory device has electrically conducting magnetic layer structure, which generates spin polarized current of magnetic moment oriented in predetermined direction in response to applied in plane charge current. WO2015102739A2Íž WO2015102739A3; PCT/US14/61410, filed 10/20/2014
  6. Buhrman, R. A., Ralph, D. C. Nguyen, M.H. & Pai, C. F. Enhancing the Efficiency of the Spin Hall Effect for Magnetic Excitation and Switching, PCT/US15/41039, filed 7/17/2015
  7. Buhrman, R. A., Ou Yongxi, and Ralph R. C., Strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy density at Fe alloy/HfO2 interfaces, PCT/US 62/486,434, filed April 17, 2017